Is Click Funnels a Scam Or “All-in-One Online Business Tool”?

Welcome To My Click Funnels Review!

Click Funnels promises, "you don’t need a website to make big money online". You can create sales by creating powerful landing pages with their software in minutes.

Click Funnels is created one of the most successful Internet marketers of all time, Russell Brunson. He has also created several other online marketing products that have been great successes

Want to Get My 7-Day Email Course to Make Money Online?

Enter Your Email Below to Steal My PROVEN Formula to Create Your Own "Money-Making Machine" In a Week...

We respect your privacy. No Spam.

Brunson has helped hundreds and thousands of people to make a full-time income online. Still, some people are asking, “Is Click Funnels a Scam?” Let’s find out.

Click Funnels Review - Quick Summary

Name: Click Funnels

Website: www.ClickFunnels .com

Founders: Russell Brunson

Field: All in One -Online Business Tool

Overall Ranking:  95 out of 100. 

Summary: Click Funnels is definitely one of the best tools that I have ever seen for building an online business. Russell Brunson has done a great job while creating this “all-in-one” package for you.

It’s almost as good as My #1 Recommendation to make money online. Wealthy Affiliate has a little bit better price/quality ratio in my opinion.

Is Click Funnels Recommended? Yes, it is.

What Is Click Funnels? 

Click Funnels is a software that helps you to create and design complete sales pages for you. And not only sales pages, it’s a literally an “all-in-one” online business tools that have everything you need to earn a full-time income online. You have all these tools inside Click Funnels:

  • Landing Page Builder
  • Opt-in Funnels
  • Website Hosting
  • A/B Split Testing
  • Conversion Tracking and stats
  • Affiliate Program Creator and Affiliate Tracking
  • Membership Site Creators
  • Professional Website Themes & Templates
  • Complete Training and Support
  • Weekly Training Webinars
  • Email Autoresponder
  • Etc.

I could continue the list even longer. Honestly, it’s hard to think about any online business tool that Click Funnels wouldn’t include. They have it all.

Click Funnels has a wonderful reputation online and many Internet marketers have used it to increase their income.

Click Funnels likes to use the McDonald’s metaphor. Think about it when you go to eat at McDonald’s. You buy a hamburger for $2,09, they make only $0,18 profit. That’s not much.

But when you buy also french fries and a coke for $1,77, they make additional $1,32 profit. The biggest profit is not made on the first sale but in upsells. McDonald’s makes 8 times more profit with their upsell than the first sale.

You can apply the same principle to your online business. You probably know the most famous eCommerce called Amazon. They are the masters of upselling. 

When you are buying tennis balls they ask would you like to buy a new tennis racket as well? What about new tennis shoes? And do you have a good cap for sunny weathers? That’s an art of upselling. It’s one of the most profitable ways of making money online. Click Funnels helps to create those sales funnels for you.

How To Make Money With Click Funnels?

This video explains how you will make money by creating sales funnels. In this video, Russell Brunson explains the McDonald’s example in a simple way.

Do You Want a FREE& Easy-to-Follow7-Day CoursetoMake Money Onlinefor Beginners?

  1. Easy-to-Follow
  2. Beginner-Friendly
  3. My Personal 1-on-1 Support for You

Get Started for FREE Below Before this offer goes away!

If you are looking for ways to become successful with your online business, then there are a few ways that Click Funnels offers you.

1.Make More Sales by Creating Sales Funnels

You can use this software to build an email or create funnels, so you are able to promote your own services and products that you are looking to sell. There are literally hundreds and thousands of individuals who are actually making a lot of money by using this process to create more business for themselves.

Anybody who has a business needs to make sales. Otherwise, it’s hard to call it a business because making sales in the fundamental part of any business. Click Funnels helps you to make sales, whether you are a writer, affiliate marketer, lawyer, psychologist or whatever. If you have a business and you need sales, Click Funnels is a tool to make more of them.

2.Grab Emails to Build Your Email List

You have probably heard the old wisdom of online marketing:

The money is in the list.

Building an email list has proved to be one of the best ways to increase your income online. According to studies +70% of visitors visit a website and never come back.

There may be thousands of visitors on your website who just be there under 10 seconds and they’ll never see you again. By grabbing their email, you can build a connection with them and offer them helpful products and offers.

Click Funnels offers you landing pages, opt-ins, tracking, autoresponder and… What else do you need for successful email marketing? Their autoresponder doesn’t only send emails but it also allows you to track which channels your visitors are coming from. Then it segments them based on actions they take.

If you are looking for a cheaper alternative for email marketing, my recommendation is Aweber. It isn't as comprehensive as Click Funnels but it's also used by +100,000 successful online entrepreneurs.

3.Create Your Own Affiliate Program

This is one of the most exciting ways. Imagine having an army of marketers selling and promoting YOUR product. You pay them some commission for each sale and you make the profit.

Numerous successful online marketers including Brendan Mace have used Click Funnels to create their sales funnels. Now Brendan, for example, has lots of people online promoting his courses while he is laying on the beach of Bali!

Click Funnels affiliate tracking is very effective and it gives you lots of detailed information: Clicks, conversions, sales etc.

+ Many Other Ways

If I would list all ways how you can make money with Click Funnels, this article would never end. That’s why we must move forward now.

How Much Money Can You Make With Click Funnels?

With the Click Funnels program, it will actually all depend on YOU on how much money you are going to make.

If you are looking to make a lot of money, then you have to make sure that you work hard to build your online business. I am not one of those guys who promises riches without any work. I have lots of experience of online marketing by using several different tools and there is one thing that I know for sure: Nothing comes for free.

You need to work your way to success but Click Funnels can speed up the process dramatically. There is not an income limit.

Click Funnels has a Bootcamp training with a promise that if you invest enough time on that training, you will be able to retire in 100 days. In my opinion, retiring in 100 days is a little bit exaggerating. Maybe somebody can achieve it but most likely it will take longer. Anyhow, you can for sure retire by using Click Funnels by working in a normal 9 to 5 job.

Click Funnels Pricing – 14-Day Free Trial with All Plans

Click Funnels has two pricing plans and a 14-day free trial. The cheaper version is $97/month and the more expensive one is $297/month.

Click Funnels $97/month plan includes

  • 100 Sales Pages

  • 20 Funnels
  • 20,000 Monthly Visitors
  • 3 Custom Domains
  • A/B Split Tests
  • Optin Funnels
  • And Much More!

Click Funnels Etison Suite $297/month plan includes

  • Unlimited Funnels
  • Unlimited Sales Pages
  • Unlimited Visitors
  • Unlimited Custom Domains
  • A/B Split Tests
  • Email Integrations
  • Optin Funnels
  • All Email List Tools
  • Unlimited Affiliates, Unlimited Commission Plans, Manage Affiliates
  • And Much More!’

In the other words, Click Funnels provides you “all-in-one” online business tools. It’s literally everything one needs to have a successful online business. You don’t even need to buy additional opt-in tools or autoresponders because Click Funnels has them also.

  • Cheaper Alternative - Thrive Architect

If you don't want to invest $99/month or $299/month in Click Funnels, I highly recommend using Thrive Architect because it only costs $67 for a single website.

Thrive Architect is part of Thrive Themes which is a set of powerful tools that help online businesses to make more money with their websites.

Watch my Click Funnels vs Thrive Architect video comparison below:

It Click Funnels Worth It? – Definitely, When You Use It Properly

You are probably thinking if Click Funnels is worth it or not. Probably the best thing to finding out if Click Funnels is good for you is to try it for free for 14 days. Then you will see all their features in action and you can determine if it’s worth it or not.

Click Funnels can dramatically increase your income but you will never find out if you don’t try it.

If you are able to increase your monthly income dramatically with Click Funnels, it’s certainly worth it. But if it doesn’t help you to make more sales, then you can easily waste some money.

After all, it depends on how you are going to use their software. There is all potential to double, triple or even quadruple your income with their service.

Conclusion – Is Click Funnels a Scam?

Definitely not. Click Funnels is a legitimate software to boost your online sales. It has helped numerous online entrepreneurs to increase dramatically their income.

You can make money with Click Funnels even without having your own website just by creating sales pages and driving traffic to them. However, I recommend having your own website to build your authority and organic traffic.

7-Day Make Money Online Email Course

Learn SIMPLE steps to make a LIFE-CHANGING INCOME online. I will help you hand-by-hand!

When you have a website, and publish new content regularly, your organic traffic increases and more people visit your website. That's exactly what this training taught me to do and generates me a full-time income online.

Then you can lead your visitors to pages that you have created by Click Funnels to make a big amount of sales. I like their program especially because it helps to build awesome sales pages easily. You don’t need to know programming or any other special skills.


Have you tried Click Funnels or similar software to create sales funnels?

What kind of experiences did you have?

Let me know in the comments below!

If you have any questions, just leave a comment below and I will be more than happy to help you out.

Affiliate Disclosure: I am an independent ClickFunnels Affiliate, not an employee. I receive referral payments from ClickFunnels. The opinions expressed here are my own and are not official statements of ClickFunnels or its parent company, Etison LLC.

By Roope Kiuttu

Hello! I am Roope "Robert" Kiuttu, the founder and owner of YourOnlineRevenue.com. I created this website back in 2015 to help you to make money online. You can ask me anything and I'll be happy to help you out. I help people daily to make more money online and I love seeing people succeeding. If you want to get my 1-on-1 support and help to make money online as well, get started HERE.

43 comments

  1. Hey Roope,

    Yes, I also agree, ClickFunnels is one of the best online marketing software products out there. Especially with all the training that is available from Russell and his team.

    Russell is very inspirational as the brains behind ClickFunnels. I love watching his webinars but am always a little apprehensive to do so as he’s just so damn good at selling and I find it hard to resist his upsell offers, haha. His products are great though.

    Interesting what you way about WealthyAffiliate. I’ve heard of them several times before but never looked into them as I’ve been busy with outer programs. I’ll take a closer look 🙂

  2. Any online business tool that offers you the opportunity for a week or two weeks free trail experience before you can decide on investing in it definitely has a lot of benefits that would be irresistible to the user. And it’s exactly what Click Funnels comes with by giving a 14-days free trail to anyone who still have doubts in what it can.

      1. Whenever any project takes the bold step of offering a trail period to its prospective clients to check out their services before deciding to invest in it, shows a sign of good faith in whatever that is being offered because should the services not being worth it, they are sure these prospective clients would never take the offer up after seeing the flaws in the trail usage.

  3. Click Funnels seems to be a legit site that one can link up with when business is involved and as we can see that everything is going on the internet at the moment. So, going on to be part of a site that can help one build his commerce site is really great.

    1. Yeah, Click Funnels is legit and so many Internet marketers are using it nowadays. Another great alternative is Thrive Themes which is a bit cheaper one. However, Thrive Themes is not as comprehensive tool as Click Funnels.

  4. Hey Roope,

    Question for you, I am a premium member of Wealthy Affiliate as well and I’m wondering if you can give me some insight or if you have already tried this as I see your WA recommendations and banners. Can you sign up for ClickFunnels for the 14 day trial to drive traffic and promote WA in their affiliate system?

    After the trial is done and you don’t sign up for the $97 a month subscription, would it still gain and send traffic even without continuing the subscription? and Furthermore if this method would work, do you recommend paying for the $97 CF subscription to continue to drive traffic to get affiliate sales on WA memberships as they can really add up over time.

    Thank you !

    1. Yes, you can promote Wealthy Affiliate or any other product/service by using ClickFunnels.

      I think that landing pages and things like that will work only as long as you have their subscription. Email lists and other similar things you can always transfer to another service when you stop using ClickFunnels.

      You must calculate whether it’s worth the money. If it makes you $500 extra per month, then paying $97/month for the subscription makes sense. If it doesn’t make anything (even in the future) then it’s not wise.

  5. Great article!
    I’ve used ClickFunnels a lot in the past and did start the affiliate bootcamp training. Whilst I didn’t go through it all (because I found Clickfunnels too expensive at the time), I did learn an awful lot about marketing!

    Do you agree with what Russell says about replacing your website with Clickfunnels? I’m unsure whether that would be the right move or not, as it’s not so easy to make Clickfunnels look niche and personal.

    Would like to hear your thoughts!

    1. Hi Joshua,

      well, you can also use Click Funnels while having a full website. Russell usually focuses on paid marketing so that’s why a website wouldn’t be necessary. You could drive traffic straight from Facebook, PPC and from other ways.

      I think Click Funnels is cheap if you have a clear idea how to apply it. Then it can be considered as an investment to your business to increase profits. But if you don’t have a clear idea how to make money with Click Funnels, it may be better to concentrate on other things first.

  6. I have heard about Click Funnels. And everyone who has used this service has good things to say about Click Funnels. I even have a friend, who says she earns more than $2000 every month through Click Funnels. If they are making money, I also could make money.

    However, I have not tried this program yet. I am busy with so many things that I am hardly finding time to look for new opportunities. Perhaps, I am losing a great opportunity to make money. I will check this out.

  7. Hi Roope,

    I have recently used a similar product called triFunnels i am sure you know it. I like the way it functions and i think its a good asset for anyones online shop.

    What’s important as you mention in your article is to use this kind of tools in the right way. If you do not setup Clickfunnels to function properly in order to earn money its not worth. So the question is how to make it work right in order for you to have earnings to your online shop.

    You need to find the correct people to make it work because not everyone has the experience to do it. As a result you have to pay for Clickfunnels per month but also pay the people that are going to operate it in the correct way for you to profit. Hope you get the point of my comment!

    1. Hi Xagiate,

      TriFunnels is a much smaller company and a service than Click Funnels. I think that Russell Brunson’s work makes Click Funnel unique. Some people say that “everything he touches online turns into a gold.”

      You are right that people need to make Click Funnels properly in order to make it profitable. You can waste your money with their app or it can make you a millionaire. It depends on how you’re going to use it. That’s why I think it’s important that they provide a good training and support on how you can use their app to boost your business.

      -Roope

  8. Hi Roope!

    Great article on Click Funnels, thank you! I was wondering about this and appreciate your thorough explanation and honest review. I could spend a long time on your site learning a lot. Everything is so well laid out. I’m a newbie to all this, so I really need a marketing online dictionary 🙂

    I’m going to spend some more time on this page because I want to understand these awesome opportunities you have taken the time to explain for us.

    Do you recommend clickfunnels for a total beginner? And do you think the 14 day trial is long enough? I am on a $0 budget right now, at least until after I move in a few weeks. I need an easy button!

    Really appreciate all your great info!
    Tara

    1. Hi Tara,

      thanks for your positive feedback. I’m very glad to hear that you enjoy my website and you’re learning a lot.

      Click Funnels is okay for a beginner if you already have a product what you are going to sell through your funnel. They’ll teach you everything from the start.

      But if you haven’t created your own products, I recommend taking Wealthy Affiliate step-by-step training. You can get started for completely free ($0, no credit cards needed). You can make a living and even a fortune just by promoting other people’s products online. It’s called affiliate marketing.

      You’ll learn everything you need for making money online in their training. I’ll also give you my personal help and support because I want you to succeed.

      -Roope

  9. The 14 day trial that they offer sounds good so I might try that out. Although the website does sound pretty good and a good way to earn some money, the monthly plans seem a bit costly, to be honest. Are there any additional costs that we should be aware of excluding the monthly costs?

    Like you said, I think it’s probably a good idea to use this alongside a custom built site that you own yourself, just so you can create a brand maybe and ensure your visitors go to the right places

    1. Hi Kingcool,

      Russell Brunson is teachings paid advertising methods like Facebook ads, PPC and so on. It’s possible to get immediate results by using them and earn a huge money relatively “easily”. However, I think that those methods are not good for beginners. You could end up spending lots of money if you don’t know how to do it well. On the other hand, if you do how to use paid advertising, it can be a huge resource to leverage your online business.

      I recommend starting out with Wealthy Affiliate but if you have already some experience of online marketing, then Click Funnels can work very well like Garrett White’s example shows.

      Also, if you already have some products that you want to sell and you have an offline business, then Click Funnels can be a great choice.

      -Roope

  10. Great post you made with Click Funnels as most people run into so many scams out there on the internet. They really can’t figure out whats real and what isn’t anymore. But with training and actually helping people to learn these legit ways helps so much. It helps to speed up your business with leverage as long as you know how to use it and get the right kind. Keep it up!

    1. Hi Travis,

      yeah, Click Funnels tools and training can literally skyrocket an online business. Brunson is a guru when it comes to online marketing so he can teach other people as well.

      His tools are also highly effective. I’ve seen that a big part of affiliate marketing training have been made by using his tools.

      -Roope

  11. Hey Roope,

    Nice review, I’m glad this guy already has a predominantly good reputation.

    Quick question : When one takes up the 100 day free challenge; affiliate programme

    I get that the training in itself is free. But, won’t you need money along the way for Facebook Ads – suches and such?

    Would appreciate some clarity!

    Thanks

    – Sinovuyo

    1. Hi Sinovuyo,

      you are right that most likely you will spend some money during 100-day challenge. It all depends on how much you want to invest. Building a successful online business takes time and effort. By paying some money, you can reduce the amount of time and efforts you would need to put it.

      When I first started my online business I thought like this, “I want to save money and use only what is minimum.” However, I have learned that sometimes it’s better to pay money to earn money. It keeps the ball rolling faster and you can leverage your business more easily. What do you think?

      -Roope

  12. What an amazing site, I feel charged and excited that there is an all in one platform like Clickfunnels to help me get started with my own online business. Thank you for sharing this information, you have made it so easy to build my own money making site. I’m a beginner, so What would be the greatest advice you could give me to get me going in the right direction with my site?

    1. Hi Jeanie,

      thank you for the positive feedback and for your question.

      My #1 recommendation is going through Wealthy Affiliate’s step-by-step training. Then put all things that you have learned into action. Ask lots of questions in the community and keep on learning.

      If you always learn something new and keep going forward, you can’t really fail.

      -Roope

  13. Good write up on this service. Seems it would definitely be worth checking out. Do you have any updates on any revenue you have seen so far? Just curious how far past the 14 day free trial you have been and what progress is being made to the 100 day goal.

    1. Hi Barrett,

      I am now concentrating on Wealthy Affiliate because it’s giving me promising results and my online income is growing every month. I think I’ll take a closer look at Click Funnels after quitting my day job because then I will have more time. Making money online seems to work so well that I am almost ready to quit my day job in order to focus full-time on building my online business.

      -Roope

  14. I agree. Click Funnels is in no way a scam. I tried their free trial and absolutely loved it. Their system is so easy to use. No technical knowledge is needed so anyone can easily create professional looking landing pages. The only thing that keeps me from using the service right now is the price. Otherwise, I really like the service and will definitely use it in the future.

    1. Hi Earthan,

      thank you very much for sharing your experience with Click Funnels. It’s incredible how easy is to make websites, landing pages, e-commerce and literally anything on Internet nowadays. 10 years ago we would have needed special skills and much more practice. Now we just make a few clicks and Voíla 😉

      You are right that Click Funnels costs something. If it can generate you much bigger income then it will be a very good investment in the future. But if you don’t make money with it, then it can become a bit expensive.

      -Roope

  15. I was a bit confused with the website. You did not explain the difference between web page and web site and if you don’t need a website then why are they given to you with the membership. You also didn’t let the reader know what happens when those initial 14 days are up. There was information in the site but there was a lot of information missing as well.

    1. Hello,

      thank you for the feedback. I will edit our Clickfunnels-review to answer your questions better.

      A website is a collection of related web pages. With Click Funnels you don’t originally need to have one but, of course, it is fine you have already.

      Why do you need to have a membership? They will give you all tools and resources to build web pages that convert people to buy your products. In addition, you can create sales funnels where they don’t only buy one product but even more.

      After the free trial of 14 days you can decide if you want to continue as a premium member or cancel your membership.

      Please, let me know if there’s anything how I can help you more.

      -Roope

  16. Very informative. I think that clickfunnels would be a great addition to my blog once I have enough content and products to promote. I think i’ll wait until i’m at the 50+ post mark before I invest with clickfunnels but you have definitely opened my eyes to an interesting new process for me to increase my revenue.. Thanks for this great review and for being so thorough

    1. Hi Len,

      Yeah, you can start using Click Funnels after reaching the 50+ post mark. That’s a good milestone already. Then always keep on adding content regularly if you want to get more traffic from Google. I am publishing new content every day which makes at least 365 post per year on YourOnlineRevenue.com.

      You can use Click Funnels also without having so many posts if you find a way to drive traffic to your sales funnels.

      -Roope

  17. Hi,

    Thanks for this review.
    I have some of Russell’s books but I’d actually forgotten about him to be honest. I’m glad you reminded me.

    Although his product does seem expensive. I’m all for investing in myself.

    Based on this review I think I’ll give the 14 day trial a shot.

    Mark.

    1. Hi Mark,

      you are right that $97 per month may sound a bit expensive. However, I think this product provides so great value that it can easily be worth much more than $97/month. Let’s say that it helps you to generate +$1,000 per month income. Then I would say that this product is very cheap. It always depends how you look about it.

      If you just buy it and don’t use, then it’s expensive. But if it helps you to quit your job, then it’s ultimately cheap. Take 14-day trial and put their teaching into action. Let me know what did you like and if you’ll continue with a premium membership 🙂

      -Roope

  18. I’m a big fan of what Russell and his people are doing with ClickFunnels. They also have a pretty helpful and awesome Facebook group for their affiliates. I decided since I’m not a product creator myself, it might not pay me back for its cost, but after reading your review, I’m wondering about the possibility of ClickFunnels’ helpfulness with the services I offer. Thanks for being thorough!!

    1. Hi Brandon,

      Even though you are not a a product creator, you could use Click Funnels also for affiliate marketing. You can always promote and sell other people’s products on your pages if you think they are valuable for others too.

      Russell Brunson is a famous online entrepreneur. He seems to know what he is doing. Even though some of his products are a bit pricey. Probably he is using the old principle, “Don’t give discounts, give additional value.”

      -Roope

  19. Thank you for the Click Funnels Review!

    I am still not quite sure how could this Click Funnels help me grow my business… I have a website about how to eliminate back pain, so how would I integrate Click funnels to it? I mean, should I make banners that end up on a landing page and then on another page that sell some product associated to back pain? Or do you have some other ideas…?

    Then another question. Is the affiliate program available in both of the plans or just in the more expensive one?

    Thank you!

    Maria

    1. Hi Maria,

      Click Funnels helps you to make funnels to make more sales and more profit with your online business. It helps you to create very good-looking landing pages very easily.

      You can lead visitors to landing pages through banners, text links, paid marketing or any way you would like. If you already have a website, then it’s good to bring traffic from your website.

      Affiliate program is available for all of their products.

      -Roope

  20. Hi Roope,

    Great review on Click Funnels. A 14 day free trial is an awesome way to start, I really like that part. When you start paying do they take the whole fee for the year? A lot of these companies tell you the monthly price but then you have to pay the full amount to join.

    Are they using clickbank products in their funnel? Last question, how much per month do you have to set aside in paid ads?

    You have to drive traffic to your sales page and I assume it’s through paid traffic.

    Thanks for this great review on Click Funnels, definitely worth checking out.

    1. Hi Peter,

      as far as I know you don’t need to pay for a yearly account if you don’t want.

      You can choose what kind of products you use in your funnels. Why not the ones from Clickbank too? One important goal in is this system is to sell similar products for the client who is already buying something. It’s a typical trick by successful marketers and McDonald’s are using it also like Russell explains.

      It depends how much you are ready to use. I would say that a few hundred dollars a month is already enough. And even less if you are on tight budget.

      -Roope

  21. Hey Roope,
    I love Russel Brunson, he’s one of the few internet marketers who inspired me to start blogging as my online business. Although his programs are filled with upsells, he’s genuinely a nice guy and he has a decent approach to things.

    I’ve heard of Click Funnels before and wanted to try last time but some of the methods there require you to have an extra cash in hand as you’ll be doing a lot of advertising. Do you happen to know how much expendable money I need to get started though? I don’t want to end up not being able to apply some of those techniques halfway after joining just because I’ve exhausted my money.

    1. Hi Riaz,

      Russell Brunson is usually a guy with lots of upsells and that is a strategy that he is teaching also in Click Funnels. But as far as I know there are no upsells in Click Funnels membership. For sure their membership is not cheap but if it enables you to make more money, it can be one of the most profitable choice that you do with your online business.

      I would recommending trying Click Funnels when you are ready to use time on their service. It can generate lots of money but if you don’t use time, then it won’t. So, you need to have time to sit down and work with Click Funnels. You also need to be ready to invest some money because their premium membership is not free. However, most of the time if you want to leverage your business, you need to use money. Like a saying goes, “You must spend money to make money.”

      You can always take a 14-day free trial and analyze if Click Funnels is going to be worth it or not. In 2 weeks you will already get a good taste how this system works.

      -Roope

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.